KNOWING CHRIST - KNOWING GOD

APPENDIX 1: ANALYSIS OF NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE WORD 'TRUTH'

(Not including references such as 'I tell you truly ... ' or referring to telling the truth as opposed to telling lies.)

(Mat 22:16) ' ... we know you are a man of integrity and that you teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. you aren't swayed by men, because you pay no attention to who they are'

alethes

aletheia

Really speaking God's word - that is not concealing or hiding it.

Jesus told the truth of God regardless of what people thought. [See also Mark 12:14].

(Mar 12:32) 'You are right in saying that God is one and there is no other but him'

aletheia

Truth = truth about God

(Joh 1:14) ' ... we have seen his glory, the glory of the One and only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.'

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Truth as the glory of Christ seen by the disciples - he is 'full of ... truth'

(Joh 1:17) ' ... the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ'

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Christ as the bringer of truth.

(Joh 3:21) 'But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light; so that it may be seen plainly that what he has done has been done through God.'

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Truth as something one 'does' - those who know the truth live according to that truth.

(Joh 4:23) ' ... the time is coming and has now come when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth for they are the kind of worshippers the Father seeks.'

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Truth as the 'arena' in which true worship to the Father is expressed. Outside of the truth worship is not possible.

(Joh 4:24) 'God is spirit, and his worshippers must worship in spirit and in truth.'

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(Joh 5:33) 'You have sent to John and he has testified to the truth. '

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John's witness was to Jesus Christ: this verse indicates that Jesus Christ = the truth.

(Joh 8:32) 'Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free'

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Knowing the truth is tied to holding to the teaching of Jesus Christ (v.31). 'The truth' is a reference to the absolute truth about God.

(Joh 8:40) ' ... you are determined to kill me, a man who told you the truth that I heard from God. ..'

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The truth - the absolute truth about God and life.

(Joh 8:44) ' ... He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies.'

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Satan, severed from God, is also severed from the truth, and characterized by the opposite of truth.

(Joh 8:45) 'Yet because I tell you the truth you do not believe me'

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Absolute truth about God and life.

(Joh 8:46) 'Can any of you prove me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don't you believe me?'

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What Jesus said is the truth.

(Joh 14:6) 'Jesus answered, 'I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me'

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Jesus calls himself 'the truth' - identifying truth as something absolute and unique.

(Joh 14:17) ' ... the Spirit of truth. the world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him ... '

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Holy Spirit characterized as the Spirit of truth - he testifies about Jesus, and he guides into all truth - again an identification of Jesus with truth.

This does not mean simply that what the Spirit says is 'true' but that what the Spirit says is 'truth' that is the body of absolute truth.

(Joh 15:26) ' ... the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about'

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(Joh 16:13) ' ... when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. he will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears ... '

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(Joh 17:17) 'Sanctify them by the truth; your word is truth. '

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God's truth - the body of absolute truth - sanctifies; also God's word = truth

(Joh 17:19) 'For them I sanctify myself, that they too may be truly sanctified'. (?= sanctified through the truth)

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(Joh 18:37) ' ... for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. everyone on the side of truth listens to me.'

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Jesus' mission to testify to 'the truth';

'The truth' as that which owns or identifies those who hear Jesus' voice.

(Joh 18:38) '"What is truth?" Pilate asked.'

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Pilate's question about 'truth'.

(Act 26:25) ' ... What I am saying is true and reasonable. '

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Paul identifies his message as 'the words of truth'

(Rom 1:18) ' ... the wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness ... '

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'The truth' as true knowledge about God and reality

Truth as opposed to wrong belief

(Rom 1:25) 'They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshipped and served created things rather than the Creator.'

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(Rom 2:2) 'God's judgement against those who do such things is based on truth'.

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'Truth' - absolute truth - as the foundation of God's judgement.

(Rom 2:8) ' ... for those who are self-seeking and who reject the truth and follow evil, there will be wrath and anger'

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'The truth' as something to be obeyed - life should be lived in the light of the truth. rejecting the truth = following evil.

(Rom 2:20) ' ... you have in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth'

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Truth = true knowledge of God and reality

(Rom 3:7) KJV 'For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner? '

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ditto

(Rom 9:1) 'I speak the truth in Christ - I am not lying ... '

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Paul claims that he spoke the truth as revealed in Christ

(Rom 15:8) ' ... I tell you that Christ has become a servant of the Jews on behalf of God's truth, to confirm the promises made to the patriarchs ... '

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Jesus Christ served the truth of God

(1Co 5:8) 'Let us keep the feast, not with the ole yeast ... of malice and wickedness, but with bread without yeast, the bread of sincerity and truth. '

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Worship etc to conform to and rise out of the truth

(1Co 13:6) 'Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. '

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The truth as the opposite of evil

(2Co 4:2) ' ... we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. '

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The truth - true knowledge about God - to be demonstrated in the lives of those who know it

(2Co 6:7) ' ... in truthful speech (= by manifestation or revelation of the truth) and in the power of God'

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'the word of truth' = what Paul preached - the true truth about God

(2Co 11:10) 'As surely as the truth of Christ is in me, nobody in the regions of Achaia will stop this boasting of mine. '

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The truth revealed by and about Jesus Christ

(2Co 13:8) 'For we cannot do anything against the truth, but only for the truth'.

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Paul's life and ministry in line with the truth, not opposed to it.

(Gal 2:5) 'We did not give in to them for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you. '

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The truth of the Gospel jeopardized by false teaching

(Gal 2:14) ' ... When I saw that they were not acting in line with the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in front of them all ... .'

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Actions can contradict and undermine the truth of the gospel

(Gal 3:1) KJV 'O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?'

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Truth as something that is obeyed or disobeyed. A life lived contrary to the truth is disobedient to that truth.

(Gal 4:16) 'have I now become your enemy by telling you the truth? '

aletheuo

Verbal form - proclaiming the truth

(Gal 5:7) 'You were running a good race. Who cut in on you and kept you from obeying the truth?'

aletheia

Truth obeyed or disobeyed

(Eph 1:13) ' You also were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. '

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The word of truth = the gospel of salvation

(Eph 4:15) 'Instead, speaking the truth in love, we will in all things grow up into him who is the Head, that is, Christ.'

Aletheuo

Speaking the truth as opposed to false teaching [see context]

(Eph 4:21) ' Surely you heard of him and were taught in him in accordance with the truth that is in Jesus.'

aletheia

The truth 'as in Jesus'

(Eph 5:9) 'For the fruit of the light consists in all goodness, righteousness and truth.'

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'truth' as a quality of life that is the fruit of the Spirit

(Eph 6:14) 'Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist ... '

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Truth - the body of God's truth that protects us against Satan's attack

(Phi 1:18) 'The important thing is that in every way, whether from false motives or true, Christ is preached.'

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'the truth of Christ' as the content of preaching

(Col 1:5) ' ... the faith and love that spring from the hope that is stored up for you in heaven and that you have already heard about in the word of truth, the gospel that has come to you. '

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'the word of truth' as the gospel

(Col 1:6) ' ... this gospel is bearing fruit and growing, just as it has been doing among you since the day you heard it and understood God's grace in all its truth '.

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'truth' = as it really is.

Knowing God's grace as it really is.

(1Th 2:13) ' ... when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe.'

alethos

Adverb = truly.

(2Th 2:10) 'They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. '

aletheia

The truth as something to be loved, and that brings salvation. = the body of true knowledge

(2Th 2:12) ' ... so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness.'

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Failure to believe the truth brings damnation; opposite of believing the truth = loving unrighteousness

(2Th 2:13) ' ... from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth.'

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Salvation comes through belief in the truth.

(1Ti 2:4) ' ... who wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth.'

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To be saved = to come to a knowledge of the truth

(1Ti 3:15) ' ... . The church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth.'

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Church seen as supporting the truth

(1Ti 4:3) ' ... . ;by those who believe and know the truth'

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'the truth' as the true truth about God

(1Ti 6:5) ' ... constant friction between men of corrupt mind, who have been robbed of the truth and who think that godliness is a means to financial gain. '

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'the truth' as the true truth about God, as opposed to false ideas

(2Ti 2:15) ' ... a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth. '

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The word of truth - something to be rightly understood

(2Ti 2:18) ' ... who have wandered away from the truth. They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they destroy the faith of some.'

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'the truth' - something people err about. The opposite of the truth leads to destruction.

(2Ti 2:25) 'Those who oppose him he must gently instruct, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth ... and escape the trap of the devil'

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Repentance = acknowledging the truth. Opposite of acknowledging the truth is being in trap of Devil.

(2Ti 3:7) ' ... always learning but never able to acknowledge the truth ... '

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The truth = something to be known and acknowledged

(2Ti 3:8) ' ... these men oppose the truth - mean of depraved minds, who, as far as the faith is concerned, are rejected. '

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The truth resisted by men of corrupt minds who are outside of faith

(2Ti 4:4) 'They will turn their ears away from the truth and turn side to myths.'

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The truth exchanged for fables

(Tit 1:1) 'Paul a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ for the faith of God's elect and the knowledge of the truth that leads to godliness ... '

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Paul is an apostle for the acknowledgement of the truth; acknowledgement of the truth associated with godliness

(Tit 1:14) ' ... and will pay no attention to Jewish myths or to the commands of those who reject the truth. '

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The truth exchanged for fables and commandments of men

(Heb 10:26) 'If we deliberately keep on sinning after we have received the knowledge of the truth, no sacrifice for sins is left ... '

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Turning away from the truth is seen as sinning willfully

(Jam 1:18) 'He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. '

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The word of truth seen as bringing people to spiritual birth

(Jam 3:14) 'But if you harbour bitter envy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast about it or deny the truth. '

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Envying and strife seen as expressions of denial of the truth

(Jam 5:19) ' ... if one of you should wander from the truth and someone should bring him back ... '

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Possibility of wandering from the truth [bringing him back is saving him from death ... see context]

(1Pe 1:22) ' Now that you have purified yourselves by obeying the truth so that you have sincere love for your brothers, ... '

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'truth' something to be obeyed.

Obeying the truth = purifying one's soul

(2Pe 1:12) 'So I will always remind you of these things, even though you know them and are firmly established in the truth you now have.'

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... established in the truth

'truth' = the body of truth

(2Pe 2:2) 'Many will follow their shameful ways and will bring the way of truth into disrepute.'

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'the way of truth' spoken against because of the impact of false teaching

(1Jo 1:6) 'If we claim to have fellowship with him yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not live by the truth.' See KJV = ' ... we lie and do not the truth.'

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'truth' is something that one does - that is, one puts into action one's knowledge of God's truth

(1Jo 1:8) 'If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. '

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Denial of one's sinfulness means that we do not have or know God's truth

(1Jo 2:4) 'The man who says, "I know him," but does not do what he commands is a liar, and the truth is not in him.'

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A lifestyle of disobedience means that a person does not have or know God's truth.

(1Jo 2:21,22) 'I do not write to you because you do not know the truth, but because you do know it and because no lie comes from the truth. Who is the liar? It is the man who denies that Jesus is the Christ ... '

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'the truth' as something to be known; truth associated with acknowledgement of Christ.

(1Jo 2:27) ' ... the anointing you received remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit - just as you were taught, remain in him'

alethes

'true' real and genuine as opposed to false and counterfeit

(1Jo 3:18) ' ... do not love with words or tongue but with actions and in truth.'

aletheia

Those who 'belong to the truth' express that truth in the way they live

(1Jo 3:19) 'This is how men know we belong to the truth, and how we set our hearts at rest in his presence ... . '

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(1Jo 4:6) 'We are from God and whoever knows God listens to us; but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. this is how we recognize the Spirit of truth and the spirit of falsehood. '

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Those whose spirit is united to the truth by the Spirit of truth hear the word of God

(1Jo 5:6) ' ... it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. '

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Holy Spirit identified as 'truth'

(2Jo 1:1) ' To the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in the truth - and not I only, but also all who know the truth ... '

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'the truth' as the content of knowledge; 'the truth' as the arena in which people are loved

(2Jo 1:2) ' ... because of the truth, which lives in us and will be with us forever ... '

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'the truth' - causes us to love, lives in us, and shall be with us forever.

(2Jo 1:3) 'Grace, mercy and peace ... will be with us in truth and love.'

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Truth = reality as opposed to the non real.

(2Jo 1:4) 'It has given me great joy to find some of your children walking in the truth, just as the Father commanded us.'

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Truth as the arena in which believers live or 'walk' and in which they love each other

The truth as being in believers.

(3Jo 1:1) 'To my dear friend Gaius whom I love in the truth.'

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(3Jo 1:3) ' It gave me great joy to have some brothers come and tell about your faithfulness to the truth and how you continue to walk in the truth. '

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(3Jo 1:4) 'I have no greater joy than to hear that my children are walking in the truth. '

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(3Jo 1:8) 'We ought therefore to show hospitality to such men so that we may work together for the truth. '

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Christians as serving the truth

(3Jo 1:12) 'Demetrius is well spoken of by everyone - and even by the truth itself. ... '

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'The truth' - the content of true knowledge - seen as affirming a person.